Diagnosis and Testing
A number of different examinations and tests are usually required to diagnose Lymphoma and to determine how much the disease has spread.
Depending on your situation, the doctor may use some or all of these tests to determine the best way to treat this cancer. Information from the following sources will help the doctor determine the diagnosis:
- Your health history: Including your family's history of disease, your personal illness history, your general health status, etc.
- Physical examination: By the doctor.
- X-ray: A procedure where low dose radiation beams are used to provide images of the inside of the body for diagnostic purposes.
- Ultrasound:A non-invasive procedure where sound waves are used to create images of lymph nodes and other structures in the body
- CT scan/CAT scan: A series of X-rays that provide detailed, three-dimensional images of the inside of the body for diagnostic purposes.
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): A technique used to obtain three-dimensional images of the inside of the body.
- Gallium scan: Gallium is a chemical taken up by some cancer cells and therefore helps doctors visualise cancer in the body. In this procedure, a safe amount of radioactive gallium is injected into the person, after which the person undergoes an X-ray where the radioactive gallium makes a tumour(s) visible. This test is performed in the Nuclear Medicine facility at the hospital.
- PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan: A way to visualise cancer in the body. Radioactive glucose (a sugar molecule used as the energy source for cells) is injected into the person and is taken up preferentially by cells with a high metabolic (energy) activity, such as cancer cells. A scanner is then used to visualise the areas of the body where the radioactive glucose is concentrated. PET scans can also be performed in the Nuclear Medicine facility at the hospital.
- Laboratory tests: Blood tests and urine tests
- Biopsy: A biopsy is one of the most important steps in diagnosing the type of Lymphoma. It involves the removal of a sample of tissue (cells), usually performed by a surgeon. The cells are then examined under a microscope. Most people will have two types of biopsies: a lymph node biopsy and a bone marrow biopsy. A lymph node biopsy is used to confirm the diagnosis of Lymphoma and a bone marrow biopsy will detect if the Lymphoma has spread to the bone marrow. All of this information is used to obtain an accurate diagnosis and decide on the best treatment for each person.
From the DVD - "Your Journey of Lymphoma Treatments"